WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS

In the framework of the Horizon 2020 programme for research and innovation, the European Commission implemented mandatory open access to all peer-reviewed scientific publications and research data from co-financed projects. The pilot project on open research data was carried out between 2014 and 2015. European Union member countries are supposed to enact the same provisions for national funding of the research activities.

In the 2015 to 2020 period, each beneficiary must provide open access to all peer-reviewed scientific publications that derive from the results of nationally-funded research projects. The national programme Open Access to Research Data will be performed prior to the implementation of the Open Access to Research Data provision.

Definitions from the Budapest and Bethesda declarations are most frequently used to describe the characteristics of open access to scientific publications. The basic principle of open access is instant accessibility to the results of public-funded research on the web with no subscription or copyright restrictions.

Open access publication (libre open access) meets the following criteria:

  1. Authors and holders of material copyrights give a free, irrevocable, and permanent right of access to all users worldwide to the publication and allow dissemination, use, distribution, transmission, and public display of the work, the making and distribution of derivative works in any digital medium for any responsible purpose (by marking the allowed use, for example, with licenses of the Creative Commons copyright model), and allow users to make a small number of copies for personal use, and

  2. the entire publication and all additional materials, including the above mentioned permission, will be, immediately after the publication, deposited into at least one web depository that allows free access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and permanent preservation.

NUK currently provides mostly free (gratis) open access to publications on the web rather than libre open access:

  • free (gratis) open access: full texts of articles are freely accessible on the web and their content is protected by the provisions of copyright law characteristic of subscription scientific journals (authors transfer material copyrights to the publisher).
  • libre open access: full texts of articles are freely accessible on the web. Authors keep their material copyrights and allow the publisher to publish (license to publish) their work in an open-access scientific journal. The allowed and prohibited use of articles is marked by the Creative Commons licenses, for example. They are determined by the journal.

Open access to the results of publicly-funded research in the form of publications and data is part of open science. It is increasingly used in publication in the form of scientific articles and published lectures; however, the field of open-access scientific monographs is developing at a slower pace. The Open Access Publishing in European Networks (OAPEN) project is the beginning of the European infrastructure of open access to scientific monographs in the humanities and social sciences.


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